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Site Characterization and Monitoring Design

The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

Bo Lindhardt, Christian Abildtrup, Henrik Vosgerau, Preben Olsen, Søren Torp, Bo V. Iversen, Jørgen Ole Jørgensen, Finn Plauborg, Per Rasmussen, and Peter Gravesen.
Editor : Bo Lindhardt
Cover: Peter Moors
Lay-out and graphic production: Authors and Kristian Anker Rasmussen
Printed: September 2001

Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Ministry of the Environment

Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries

National Environmental Research Institute
Ministry of the Environment

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Entire report
plap1_sept-2001.pdf 6242k

Main report pp. 80
plap1_rapport_sept-2001.pdf 865k

Annexe 1 pp. 32
plap1_annexe1_sept-2001.pdf 626k

Annexe 2 pp. 30
plap1_annexe2_sept-2001.pdf 860k

Annexe 3 pp. 38
plap1_annexe3_sept-2001.pdf 761k

Annexe 4 pp. 38
plap1_annexe4_sept-2001.pdf 1205k

Annexe 5 pp. 40
plap1_annexe5_sept-2001.pdf 871k

Annexe 6 pp. 40
plap1_annexe6_sept-2001.pdf 1359k

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Price: DKK 500.00
ISBN 87-7871-094-4
Available from
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
Phone: +45 38 14 20 00, fax +45 38 20 50

cover_site-char-moni-design.jpg 148x193

Table of contents
1. Introduction
1.1 Objectives of the programme
1.2 Schedule
1.3 Structure of the report
2. Site selection
2.1 Soil type
2.1.1 Areas with Quaternary clay
2.1.2 Areas with Quaternary sand
2.2 Climate
2.3 Hydrogeology
2.4 Site area
2.5 Site history
2.6 Site access
2.7 The six selected sites
3. Monitoring design
3.1 Groundwater monitoring
3.1.1 Piezometers
3.1.2 Vertical monitoring wells
3.1.3 Horizontal monitoring wells
3.2 Drainwater collection
3.3 Soil water sampling
3.4 Climate parameters
3.5 Monitoring device codes
4. Geological and
pedological methods
4.1 Geological methods
4.1.1 Geological field work
4.1.2 Laboratoy analyses at GEUS
4.2 Pedological and
soil hydrological methods
4.2.1 Pedological field work
4.2.2 Soil hydrology
4.3 Geophysical mapping
5. Site characterization
5.1 Site 1: Tylstrup
5.2 Site 2: Jyndevad
5.3 Site 3: Silstrup
5.4 Site 4: Estrup
5.5 Site 5: Faardrup
5.6 Site 6: Slaeggerup
5.7 Comparison of the sites
6. Pesticide selection
Annexe 1. Site 1: Tylstrup A1-1
Annexe 2. Site 2: Jyndevad A2-1
Annexe 3. Site 3: Silstrup A3-1
Annexe 4. Site 4: Estrup A4-1
Annexe 5. Site 5: Faardrup A5-1
Annexe 6. Site 6: Slaeggerup A6-1

There is a growing public concern in Denmark regarding pesticide contamination of groundwater and surface waters. The Danish National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (GRUMO) has revealed the presence of pesticides and their degradation products in approx. 30% of the monitored screens (GEUS, 2000). The increasing detection of pesticides over the past 10 years has raised doubts as to the adequacy of the existing approval procedure for pesticides. As the water sampled under the groundwater monitoring programme is usually more than 5 years old and often more than 20 years old, the results are of limited value as regards evaluation of the present approval procedure.

EU and hence Danish assessment of the risk of pesticide leaching to the groundwater is based mainly on data from laboratory or lysimeter studies. However, these types of data assessment do not provide satisfactory characterization of the leaching that might occur under actual field conditions. Soil (chemical properties and biological processes) and hydrogeology can vary significantly within as well as between fields, and climate conditions can vary during pesticide use. Furthermore, agricultural practice also varies between fields. Many of these parameters are not covered by laboratory or lysimeter studies as presently performed.

Laboratory and lysimeter studies provide little if any information on the inherent variability of the soil parameters affecting leaching. This is of particular importance for silty and loamy soils, where preferential flow may occur. Field studies abroad have demonstrated considerable transport of several pesticides to 1 m b.g.s. (below ground surface) in loamy soils under conditions comparable with those in Denmark. The inclusion of field studies, i.e. test plots exceeding 1 ha, in risk assessment of pesticide leaching to the groundwater is considered an important improvement in risk assessment procedures. The US-EPA has requested such field studies to support the registration of pesticides suspected of potentially being able to leach to groundwater. Over the past decade, studies of more than 50 pesticides have been conducted. Based on this experience the US-EPA has published a set of guidelines for field studies (US-EPA, 1998). In Europe, EU Directive 91/414/EEC, annexe VI (Council Directive 97/57/EC of 22 September 1997) enables field study results to be included in the risk assessments.

Objectives of the programme
The aim of the Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP) is to monitor whether pesticides or their degradation products leach to groundwater under actual field conditions when applied in the prescribed manner. The programme is designed such that the findings can be evaluated in relation to the drinking water quality criterion, i.e. 0.1 µg/l.
The programme encompasses six test sites selected to represent the dominant soil types and the climatic variation in Denmark. To provide early warning of unacceptable leaching, the sites were selected where the groundwater was located 1-4 m below the ground surface, thus ensuring a short response time. Pesticides are applied to the test fields as part of routine agricultural practice and in accordance with the current regulations, thereby enabling the occurrence of pesticides or their degradation products in the groundwater downstream of the test field to be related to the current approval conditions pertaining to the pesticides.
The programme will only include pesticides used in arable farming. Pesticides used in forestry, fruit orchards and horticulture are not encompassed by the programme.

Work on designing the programme started in August 1998. The six sites were selected during 1999 and the equipment for sampling drainwater and groundwater was installed the same year. This report presents the site characterization and the monitoring design of each site. Monitoring was initiated between May 1999 and April 2000. The results will be published in forthcoming reports.

Structure of the report
Chapter 2 provides a detailed description of the criteria used in selecting the test sites. Chapter 3 describes the monitoring equipment and methods while Chapter 4 presents the geological and pedological methods used to characterize the sites. Chapter 5 briefly describes the six test sites with regard to instrumentation, pedology and geology. For a more detailed characterization of each site the reader is referred to the accompanying annexes. Finally, Chapter 6 presents the pesticides encompassed by the programme.

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Sidst ændret : 22. maj 2002
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